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Risk management

The Audit Committee has overall responsibility for the monitoring of internal controls, approving accounting policies and agreeing the treatment of significant accounting issues. The consideration and documentation of risks and opportunities is undertaken on an annual basis as part of the budgeting process which the full Board take part in. These matters are then monitored and adapted as required throughout the year by the means of regular management meetings and scheduled conference calls between the Executive Directors and the divisional management teams around the World. The annual insurance renewal provides a further opportunity to asses risks and provide cover in areas where risk mitigation is not possible or levels of risk are significant.

The Board reviews monthly financial performance against budgets and forecasts and monitors bank facilities and other treasury functions with any policy changes approved by the Board.

The Audit Committee receives feedback from the external auditors on areas of risk and accounting procedures which are used in adapting internal control processes as required.

Key business risks

The Board of Directors has identified the main categories of business risk in relation to the implementation of the Group’s strategic aims and objectives, and has considered reasonable steps to prevent, mitigate or manage these risks.

The principal areas noted during this review are summarised as follows:


The Group’s businesses are active in markets which can be cyclical in nature as the overall level of market demand is dependent upon capital investment intentions. Economic or financial market conditions determine global demand and could adversely affect our customers, distributors, operations, suppliers, and other parties with whom we transact. Such factors as the Brexit vote and the presidential elections in the USA during the prior financial year are examples of factors which have resulted in changes in demand. The Directors seek to ensure that our overall risk is mitigated by avoiding excessive concentration of exposure to any given geographical or industry segment, or to any individual customer. Market conditions, lead indicators and industry forecasts are monitored for any early warning signs of changes in overall market demand, and measures to exploit opportunities or manage elevated risks are taken as appropriate.

Production and supply chain

The continuity of the Group’s business activities are dependent upon the cost effective supply of products for sale from our own facilities, and those of our key vendors. Supply can be disrupted by a variety of factors including raw material shortages, labour disputes and unplanned machine down time. In particular, the Directors are mindful that a small number of key outsource manufacturing partners are located in relatively close proximity to each other in Taiwan.

Taiwan is ranked by Gardner Research as the seventh largest producer nation of machine tools, with global production valued at almost US$4 billion. Taiwanese suppliers represent approximately one third of the total cost of sales for the Group. Group businesses mitigate against such risk by carefully selecting high quality vendors and maintaining long term constructive and open relationships. The effectiveness of such mitigation would be limited, however, in certain catastrophic circumstances (for example, extreme weather or seismic activity in the vicinity), against which the Group carries appropriate insurance. Additional, supply sources in India have been developed as a consequence and an increasing amount of product is now made in the USA as well.

Laws and regulations

Group businesses may unknowingly fail to comply with all relevant laws and regulations in the countries in which they operate and contract business. There is a risk of breach of legal, safety, environmental or ethical standards which can be more difficult to identify, comprehend, or monitor in certain territories than others. The Directors believe that they have taken all reasonable steps to ensure that operations are conducted to high ethical, environmental and health and safety standards. Controls are in place to keep regulatory and other requirements under careful review, and scrutinise any identified instances of elevated risk.

Information Technology (“IT”)

Group IT systems and the information they contain are subject to security risks including the unexpected loss of continuity from virus or other issues, and the deliberate breach of security controls for commercial gain or mischief. Any such occurrences could have a significant detrimental effect on the Group’s business activities. These risks are mitigated by the utilisation of physical and embedded security systems, regular back-ups and comprehensive disaster recovery plans.

Treasury and risk management

Financial risks

The main financial risks faced by the Group are credit risk, foreign currency risk, interest rate risk and liquidity risk. The Directors regularly review and agree policies for managing these risks.

Credit risk is managed by monitoring limits and payment performance of counterparties. The Directors consider the level of general credit risk in current market conditions to be normal. Where a customer is deemed to represent an unacceptable level of credit risk, terms of trade are modified to limit the Group’s exposure. Insurance cover is also taken where appropriate.

Foreign currency risk is managed by matching payments and receipts in foreign currency to minimise exposure. Foreign currency is bought to match liabilities as they fall due where currency receipts are insufficient to match the liability. Whilst the Group results are now reported in US Dollars the functional currency of 600 UK, 600 Inc., Clausing Industrial Inc., TYKMA Inc. and 600 Machine Tools Pty Limited remain in their local currency respectively and the result in the Group’s Statement of Financial Position and trading results can be affected by movements in these currencies. Part of this exposure is naturally hedged by entering into borrowing facilities denominated in local currencies.

Liquidity risk is managed by the Group maintaining undrawn trade finance facilities in addition to a number of longer term loans and loan notes in order to provide short term flexibility.

Interest rate risk is managed by holding a mixture of cash and borrowings in Sterling, US dollars and Australian dollars at floating rates of interest and holding loan notes with a fixed interest rate until maturity.

Market risks

The Group’s main exposure to market risk arises from increases in input costs in so far as it is unable to pass them on to customers through price increases. The Group does not undertake any hedging activity in this area and all materials and utilities are purchased in spot markets. The Group seeks to mitigate increases in input costs through a combination of continuous improvement activities to minimise increases in input costs and passing cost increases on to customers, where this is commercially viable.

The Group is also aware of market risk in relation to the dependence upon a relatively small number of key vendors in its supply chain. This risk could be manifest in the event of a commercial or natural event leading to reduced or curtailed supply. The Group seeks to mitigate these risks by maintaining transparent and constructive relationships with key vendors, sharing long term plans and forecasts, and encouraging effective disaster recovery planning. Alternative sources of supply in different geographic regions have also been put in place.

The Group is also exposed to the risk of a downturn in its customers’ end markets leading to reduced levels of activity for the Group. The Directors seek to ensure that the Group’s activities are not significantly concentrated in sales to either one individual customer or into a single market sector in order to mitigate the exposure to a downturn in activity levels. The Directors consider that the current level of market risk is normal.

Other principal risks and uncertainties

Pension funding risk was a significant risk to the Group but this has largely been eliminated by the buy-out of the UK final salary scheme. There remains a small closed pension arrangement in the USA and a requirement to provide health insurance cover to a limited extent to a number of retired people in the USA. The Directors regularly review the performance of the pension scheme and any recovery plan. Proactive steps are taken to identify and implement cost effective activities to mitigate the pension scheme liabilities and insurance premium of the retiree health scheme.

The remaining main risks faced by the Group are to its reputation as a consequence of a significant failure to comply with accepted standards of ethical and environmental behaviour.

The Directors have taken steps to ensure that all of the Group’s global operations are conducted to the highest ethical and environmental standards. Regulatory requirements are kept under review, and key suppliers are vetted in order to minimise the risk of the Group being associated with a company that commits a significant breach of applicable regulations.

Annual Report and Accounts 2018

Annual report 2018

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